Hanoi in Vietnam - Millenium capital of the country

Hanoi is the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and also the former capital of most dynasties in Vietnam in the past. So, the history of Hanoi is closely related to the vicissitudes of Vietnam's history through different periods. Currently, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City are the most important cities in Vietnam.

Hanoi in Vietnam

Hanoi is located in the middle of the Red River Delta having very fertile land. So the city has quickly become the center of politics, economy and culture since the beginning of Vietnam's history. In 1010, King Ly Cong Uan of the Ly dynasty decided to build the new capital of Vietnam in Hanoi with the name of Thang Long. During the reign of different dynasties like: Ly, Tran, Le, Mac, Trinh... Thang Long was the center of Vietnam's culture, education and commerce. When the Tay Son dynasty came to power, the capital was transferred to Hue and Thang Long was named Hanoi in 1831 under King Minh Mang of Nguyen dynasty. In 1902, Hanoi became the capital of the Indochinese Federation, which adopted the Haussmann architecture style to be considered the "Little Paris of the Orient" at that time. After the tumults of Vietnam's history caused by successive wars, Hanoi has been chosen as the capital of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam until today.

Geography of Hanoi:

Hanoi is located in the middle of the Red River Delta. After the extension of the administrative boundary in August 2008, the city has an area of ​​3324.92 km2 and is situated on two sides of the Red River, but mainly on the right bank. Thanks to the alluvium, the topography of three-quarters of the city of Hanoi is flat. The mountainous regions are found in suburban districts like Soc Son, Ba Vi, Quoc Oai, My Duc...with high peaks such as Ba Vì (1.281 m), Gia Dê (707 m), Chân Chim (462 m), Thanh Lanh (427 m), Thiên Trù (378 m)... In the center of Hanoi, there are only a few low hills like Dong Da and Mount Nung.

Hanoi is divided by the famous Red River which is also the main river of the city. In addition, on the territory of this city, there are many other rivers like: Day, Duong, Cau, Ca Lo...and small rivers like: To Lich, Kim Nguu…flowing in the city of Hanoi.

Hanoi is a city of many lakes in particular which are the remnants of ancient rivers. In the city, the West Lake with the largest area, about 500 ha, plays an important role in the urban landscape. The Restored Sword Lake located in the historical center of the city, the most populated areas, is still considered one of the special sites in Hanoi. We can mention the most famous lakes such as: Trúc Bạch, Thiền Quang, Thủ Lệ… In addition, there are many lakes such as Kim Liên, Liên Đàm, Ngải Sơn - Đồng Mô, Suối Hai, Mèo Gù, Xuân Khanh, Tuy Lai, Quan Sơn...located in the suburbs of Hanoi.

Hanoi in Vietnam

Climate of Hanoi:

Hanoi has a tropical monsoon climate. The weather is distinctly different between the hot and cold season and can be divided into four seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In general, the hot season begins at the end of April until September. The climate is hot, humid and rainy. Between September and November, it is cool. Between November and January, it is cold and dry. From February to the end of March, it is also often cold in Hanoi with waves of lasting drizzles.

The average winter temperature in Hanoi is 17.2 ° C (the lowest is 2.7 ° C). The average summer temperature is 29.2 ° C (the highest is 43.7 ° C). The average annual temperature is 23.2 ° C and the average annual rainfall is 1.800mm.

In May of 1926, in Hanoi, the highest temperature was 42.8 ° C. In January of 1955, the lowest temperature was 2.7 ° C. In June 2015, City suffered a heat wave of record during 1 week (1 to 7 June) with the temperature going up to 43.7 ° C which is the record recorded in the history of Hanoi.

Population of Hanoi:

Hanoi, for a long time, is the land of the cohabitation of the populations coming from all the regions of Vietnam. In its history, the city also witnesses the presence of foreigners, especially the Chinese people. Below are the recorded changes in the populations of Hanoi:

In 1954: 53,000 people / 152 square kilometers

In 1961: 91,000 people / 584 square kilometers

In 1978: 2.5 million / 2136 square kilometers

In 1991: More than 2 million / 924 square kilometers

In 2008: 6.2 million / 3324 square kilometers

In 2009: 6.4 million people

In 2010: 6.6 million people

In 2015: About 8 million people…

Regarding the population structure, according to data, residents in Hanoi are mainly the Kinh (Viet), accounting for 98.1% of the population. The ethnic groups are the Muong (0.76%), the Tay (0.23%)... concentrated mainly in west of Hanoi.

Hanoi in Vietnam

Hanoi and its turbulent history:

Hanoi witnessed human life more than 20,000 years ago, according to archaeological excavations at Co Loa located 15km from the current city center. But in the moment where the ice melted, the sea was advancing in the mainland, the populations of this Neolithic period had to settle in the mountains. About 4 or 5 thousand years BC, these people returned to live in Hanoi. In the 3rd century BC, during the war with the Qin from China, Thuc Phan chose Co Loa about 15 km from the current city center as the capital. Co Loa's choice proved that Hanoi became, for the first time, a center of urban politics and society.

After being defeated by the Chinese army in the early 2nd century BC, Hanoi was dominated by several current Chinese dynasties. There were times when Hanoi was released as from 544 - 602 ... In 938, after the victory over the Han of China, Co Loa - Hanoi became once again the capital of the Vietnamese people.

Some important dates in its turbulent history:

In 968, Co Loa - Hanoi lost the role of the capital when King Dinh built the capital in Hoa Lu belonging to the actual Halong Bay on Land. In 1009, after taking power, King Ly transferred the capital from Hoa Lu to Hanoi named Thang Long.

In 1400, Hanoi lost the role of the capital when King Ho built the capital in Thanh Hoa located in 150 km south of Hanoi.

In 1428, Hanoi re - started the role of the capital when King Le Loi won the victory over the Chinese people. Between 1786 and 1802, during the reign of the Tay Son dynasty, Hanoi ceded its position to Hue in the center of the country.

In 1902, Hanoi became the capital of the entire Indochinese Federation. Thanks to the planning of the French people, the city gradually took a new face. But the vestiges of the ancient capital of Thang Long - Hanoi were completely destroyed.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Hanoi lived several historical events. After the Second World War, September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh declared the independence of Vietnam with the birth of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam with the capital in Hanoi.

During the Vietnam War between 1955 and 1975, Hanoi continued to be the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Known as the northern government). In 1975, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam chose Hanoi as the capital until today.

Hanoi: Tourist destinations not to be missed:

Hanoi, compared to other provinces and cities of Vietnam, is a city rich in potential for the development of tourism. In the city center, next to the monuments of architecture, there are also many interesting museums. The city of Hanoi also has many advantages to present the culture of Vietnam to foreign visitors through the popular theaters, traditional villages...If you have about three days, these are the most essential interests of tourism in Hanoi:

In the center of the city:

Hanoi Old Town: The old town, the historical center of the city, is still today the most populous part of Hanoi. The spatial boundaries of the old quarters are known by '’36 Guilds’'. Over the years, residents living from crafts, trade... have formed professional streets like: Hang Bac - Street of Goldsmiths, Hang Bo - Street of Baskets, Hang Duong - Sugar Street, Hang Mam - Street of Brine...

Hanoi in Vietnam

All the houses along the ancient streets of Hanoi are in the form of "tube", which are often: narrow, long and deep and sometimes connect to the other street. In these houses, there is also almost the same presentation: the facade is the place of sale or to keep goods, followed by the open-air courtyard to get the light. Finally, it is the space reserved for everyday life: Halls, rooms... The old quarters are the ideal place to discover the daily life of the inhabitants of Hanoi.

The citadel of Hanoi: Also known as the royal citadel of Thang Long, the citadel of Hanoi is located between the West Lake and Hoan Kiem Lake or Restituted Sword Lake. After numerous destructions, reconstructions... the citadel now has only some remains: At the street of Phan Dinh Phung, it is the gate of the North built of stone and brick in a very solid way; The Tour of the Hanoi Flag built in 1812 is located on the street of Dien Bien Phu. This 40 meter high building has three large floors and a prismatic tower in which there is a spiral staircase leading to the flag...

31 July 2010, at the 34th session in Brasilia, the capital of Brazil, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee was based on three criteria: Length of cultural history, continuity of heritage as a center of power and the abundant layers of the vestiges of history to classify the citadel of Hanoi as the Cultural Heritage of the World.

The Temple of Literature: Built in 1070 at 2 km from downtown of Hanoi, the Temple of Literature is a sanctuary dedicated to Confucius and also the first university of Vietnam to train the mandarins of different dynasties. This temple which has 82 steles marking 1307 doctoral students have been classified as Documentary Heritage of Humanity by UESCO on the occasion of the Hanoi Millennium Anniversary organized in 2010. The temple is also the place to grant the title, the scholarship...to the best current students where they come to ask good luck before participating in difficult competitions. Today, the Temple of Literature becomes one of the most popular destinations of travelers and also one of the cultural addresses of Hanoi.

Hanoi in Vietnam

Hoan Kiem Lake or Restored Sword Lake: Located in the heart of Hanoi, Hoan Kiem Lake is considered the green jewel of the millennial capital. In reality, this city of Vietnam has many lakes. But Hoan Kiem is the most sacred with precious monuments such as the temple of Ngoc Son (Jade Mountain), the temple of Ba Kieu, the Turtle Tower... During the weekend (Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays), the pedestrian area around the lake with many cultural activities...is an address not to be missed in Hanoi.

The National History Museum: Constructed by the French people at some steps from the center of Hanoi in the early 1930s, the National History Museum keeps about 200,000 objects, historical and cultural documents of Vietnam, from prehistory to 1945, including many rare and most precious collections of the country. This museum of the style of Indochinese architecture is located just behind the Hanoi Opera House.

The Vietnamese Women's Museum: Located in the heart of the Hanoi capital, the Vietnamese Women's Museum was founded in 1987 and is managed by the Vietnam Women's Union. The museum is responsible for researching, preserving and presenting material and immaterial heritages about the history and culture of Vietnamese women. This museum is also the cultural exchange center of Vietnamese women and international women for the purpose of equality, development and peace. In addition, the Vietnamese Women's Museum is located at Ly Thuong Kiet Street which is one of the most beautiful in Hanoi.

The Museum of the History of the Vietnamese Army: Located right next to the Tower Flag of Hanoi, the Museum of the History of the Army is an address to better understand the history of Vietnam in the 20th century with many successive wars. In the museum, you will see weapons, objects of war, documentary films about military campaigns...which evoke a painful but heroic past of the Vietnamese people in general and especially of Hanoi.

Hanoi in Vietnam

The Ba Dinh Square - The Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum: During the trip in Hanoi, visitors cannot ignore the political center of Vietnam with the seat of the National Assembly, the presidential palace, the Ba Dinh historical place... where Ho Chi Minh declared the birth of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Behind the mausoleum, this is the One Pillar Pagoda. Around the Mausoleum of Ho Chi Minh preserving the body of the Father of Independence, there are his house, the most beautiful French colonial buildings in Hanoi...

West Lake: It is the largest and the most romantic lake in Hanoi. The most appropriate time to come here is at sunset to enjoy its romantic ambience. The West Lake is next to the old village of Nghi Tam known by the horticulture, the village of Ngu Xa known by the bronze work...which are the places to visit when traveling in Hanoi.

Tran Quoc Pagoda: This is the oldest pagoda in Hanoi that was built in the 6th century in the West Lake. The architecture of the pagoda is a perfect harmonious combination between the majestic, ancient characters... and the elegance of the vast fluvial space. The Tran Quoc Pagoda is a famous site of visitors and sacred for Vietnamese Buddhists in general and especially in Hanoi.

Hanoi in Vietnam

The Temple of Quan Thanh: Built in the 11th century in Hanoi to venerate the Protector God of the West of the city, the temple of Quan Thanh is an address not to be missed in the West Lake. In the temple, there is the statue of the God weighing 4 tons in bronze. The temple of Quan Thanh on the West Lake, as well as the Kim Lien pagoda, the Tran Quoc pagoda...creates harmony in the landscape architecture and religious culture of Hanoi.

French quarters in Hanoi: After the conquest of Hanoi, in 1883, the French people began to have the plan to rebuild the city. Based on the streets existing before, the French architects made new roads and construction works to adapt to the local environment to create a style known today as colonial architecture. The districts planned by the French people include: The concession, Hoan Kiem Lake and the ancient citadel of Hanoi.

The French districts in Hanoi begin with the Concession with streets like Bach Dang, Trang Tien, Thanh Tong, Tran Nhan Tong, Nguyen Huy Tu... where the French people built barracks, palaces, hospitals...Before being the concession, these quarters belonged to the Hanoi Navy.

The ancient citadel of Hanoi includes streets like Phan Dinh Phung, Hung Vuong, Hoang Dieu, Dien Bien Phu, Hong Phong, Chu Van An, Tran Phu ... which are known by the wide boulevards, ancient trees, villas…keeping the elaborate architecture style of the North of France. The most typical and important monuments are the former palace of the governors of Indochina (current presidential palace), the Ministry of Finance of Indochina (Ministry of Foreign Affairs today), the Albert Sarraut High School (Seat of present party)... which are also in the list of the most beautiful colonial buildings in Hanoi.

Hanoi in Vietnam

Around the Hoan Kiem Lake or the green jewel of Hanoi, you have the streets like Trang Thi, Trang Tien, Tran Hung Dao, Hai Ba Trung, Quang Trung, Phan Boi Chau, Phan Chu Trinh...In this space, you have the Sofitel Metropole Hotel, the imposing Hanoi Opera built from 1902 to 1911 according to the style of the Opera Garnier in Paris, the Museum of National History... The Opera next to the Hilton Hotel creates a beautiful harmony of ancient and contemporary architecture to this millennial city. Today, despite many changes, but French architecture is often considered one of the legacies in Hanoi.

The Hanoi Museum of Ethnology: Built in 1997 at 10 km from the center of Hanoi, the museum preserves and exhibits many cultural objects of 54 ethnic groups in Vietnam. Objects are classified according to various criteria such as ethnic groups, functions, clothing, jewelry, farm tools, fishing tools, weapons, household items, musical instruments, religions, beliefs, weddings, funerals, spiritual - social activities... Outside, there are many folk architectures such as house of Ba Na people, house of Ede people, house of Tay people, house of Dao people, house of Hmong people, house of Vietnamese people, house of Cham people, house of Ha Nhi people, the tomb of Jarai people, tomb of Katu people... The Museum of Ethnology, one of the most interesting in Asia, is not to be missed in Hanoi.

The water puppet show in Hanoi: Created just over 10 centuries ago in the Red River Delta, water puppets are a unique folk tradition in the form of a theatrical art of cultivation of irrigated rice. From a folk art, puppets on water become a special creation and immaterial cultural character of Vietnamese people. Puppets exist in many countries around the world, but water puppets exist only in Vietnam. There are two theaters in Hanoi city center to present this unique art.

The Hanoi rickshaw ride: This ancient means of transport evokes the "colonial" atmosphere but this is ideal to discover the everyday life in the old quarters of Hanoi.

Destinations in the suburbs:

The ceramics village of Bat Trang: Founded in the 11th century at 18km from the center of Hanoi by artisans of ceramics, the village of Bat Trang specializes in the production of many products of different functions: objects for everyday life, cult objects, artistic ceramics… Here, many families continue to keep the craft art transmitted by their ancestors to create unique and differently sophisticated product features. The well-known Ba Trang ceramics products, exported to many parts of the world ... are the pride of Hanoi.

Hanoi in Vietnam

The silk village of Van Phuc: Situated at 10km from the center of Hanoi, the village of Van Phuc is famous for the production of silk more than a thousand years ago. The silk of Van Phuc can captivate travelers with unique and the most ancients patterns in Vietnam. In particular, its traditional silk made from natural materials... keeps a softness, a delicacy... that do not exist anywhere. It is also for this reason that the silk of Van Phuc in Hanoi was chosen to make the royal customs in the past.

In the heart of Hanoi, with many changes in the industrialization and modernization of the capital, Van Phuc retains many characteristics of a former small Vietnamese village such as trees, laterite wells, communal temples, rites to be a peaceful oasis in the urban space of Hanoi.

The village of Duong Lam: Located at 50 km from the center of Hanoi, Duong Lam is the first ancient village in Vietnam recognized by the State as the cultural and historical vestige in 2006. Duong Lam has a total of 956 old houses built in 1649, 1703, 1850 ... in traditional materials: laterite, bamboo, wood, terracotta ... In addition, the ancient village of Duong Lam also has a system of monuments like: churches, pagodas, temples, old wells... in the peaceful countryside of Hanoi.

With the characteristics of architecture, the artistic space of an ancient Vietnamese village at the Red River Delta, today, the ancient village of Duong Lam becomes a highlight of Hanoi tourism…

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